SAGINAW GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
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DID YOU KNOW:
September comes from the Latin word 'SEPTEM', meaning “seven,” because it was the seventh month of the early Roman calendar. It is the NINTH month of the Gregorian calendar, in use today, and the first month of the Autumn or Fall season.
Ahh... Autumn. Crisp mornings, sunny days, cooler nights. The beginning blush of golds, oranges and reds....the last push of fresh veggies from our garden and the lush flowers from the hydrangeas and mums, and the roar of a crowd at a football game!
TUESDAY 12 SEPT:
TOUR OF THE
ST CHARLES MUSEUM
From 6-8 pm
Rides available from
Saginaw LDS church
DEPARTS @ 5:30 SHARP!
(PLEASE SIGN UP)
SGS NEWS: A new SGS board was elected in June, they are as follows:
“Get your facts first, then you can distort them as you please.” —Mark Twain
FOOD & FAMILY
Did you know...family recipes are a tradition!?!
GO AHEAD...Make it with family!
What food is most popular in SEPTEMBER?
Well, that would be anything associated with AUTUMN!
And for me, fall is... lasagna, chili, pot roast, meat loaf...
OH, I LOVE FALL!!!
GENEALOGY: ITS ALL ABOUT CHASING YOUR OWN TALE!
This month we honor WWI and a few of the stories told ...
Minnie Strobel, fifth from the left in the front row, at the Thanksgiving table in her ward.
“The War Thus Comes To An End.” Those were the words that President Woodrow Wilson delivered to Congress after announcing the terms of the armistice, signed hours earlier — ending a global conflict that killed an estimated 8.5 million soldiers across both sides and injured 21 million more.
On this Nov. 11, 2023, that peace agreement will be more than 125 years old. To commemorate the anniversary, we asked readers to share stories and memories of their relatives who had a role in World War I. We received hundreds of submissions, many of which went beyond the traditional definition of a war story; among the tales of loss, death and trauma were also stories of love, mischief and unexpected happiness. Countless families were forged during and after the war: young men and women, who may not have ever met otherwise, brought together under circumstances tied to their service. Other readers wrote of relatives who joined the military to earn their citizenship after immigrating to the United States. Sometimes even without understanding a word of English, these men put on a uniform and fought for a country they wanted to call home.
Below is a small selection of submissions from readers.
One Of The Nurses' Happiest Days Ever!
"My great-aunt, Minnie Strobel, served in the Army Nurse Corps. A farm girl from Mound City, Mo., she left home at 34 to become a nurse. Her station in Orleans, France, received soldiers directly from the front lines. Imagine the joy and gratitude of the soldiers and nurses when the armistice was signed on Nov. 11! This is her scrapbook account of Thanksgiving, three weeks later: “All was in readiness on time for the turkey and dressing. All ambulatory patients were seated at the table after the bed patients had their trays. Table after table were served. It was late afternoon before the last were served. Remarks such as this came from the boys: ‘Gee isn't this great!’ or ‘When was the last time I had my feet under the table?’ or ‘This is next to being at home.’ It was a great day. No one thought of being weary. One of the nurses' happiest days ever.” — Holly Buchanan, Snohomish, WA
A Bomb Flew Over Head, Shaving Off My Hair!
My maternal grandfather, Jacob Glass, was an infantryman in World War I. By the time I knew him, he was bald. “Why are you bald, Grandpa?” I asked him one day. Running his hand quickly just above his head, he replied, “A bomb flew over my head, shaving off my hair, and I've been bald ever since.” I was young. I believed him! — Dan Baker, New York, NY
I’m A German War Hero!
My grandfather, Emil Forchheimer, was a soldier in the German Army. He entered the army in 1909 and served until 1917, when he was wounded and released from service. He was awarded the Iron Cross for bravery during battle. He thought of himself as a full German Jewish citizen. When the Nuremberg laws were implemented in the 1930s, Emil would say, “They can’t do this to me; I’m a German citizen. In fact, I’m a German war hero!” Only after his arrest on Kristallnacht did he accept that remaining safe in Germany was impossible. His World War I veteran status, along with a promise to his GERMAN captors to leave Germany immediately, contributed to his release from the Dachau concentration camp at the end of January 1939. Luckily, he had a relative who sponsored him and his family for immigration to the United States. — Rachel Green, Los Angeles, CA
He Moved The Entire Family To The U. S. A.
I knew my maternal grandfather, Pietro Fontanarosa, only as a toothless old man with a cane. But I recently learned that he was a member of the elite Italian Army mountain fighters. The Alpini division suffered great losses as they hauled artillery into the Italian Alps, digging tunnels and building outposts to keep Austro-Hungarian troops from invading Italy. Weather claimed a large number of the casualties. When he returned from the war, he learned that his wife had died, leaving three children behind. Pietro remarried and eventually moved the entire family to the United States. — Edward Gullo, Bellow Falls, VT.
He Joined the Army AND The Navy!
At 16, my father ran away to join the United States Army. My grandmother wrote to the President to get her son back because he was too young. The Army sent him home. Then he ran away again and this time he joined the Navy, but the war ended soon after and he went home... once again. — Richard Ross, Highland Park, Ill.
Propellers Proved To Be His Weakness
My grandfather, Frederick Jeffreys, signed up in 1917 for service with the Royal Flying Corps, training at Camp Borden in Canada. What he referred to as his “first crash” occurred in Dundalk, Ontario. A local paper chronicled the “birdman” and his biplane, which made a “graceful flight low down over the village” before “roosting on a wire fence on the Doyle farm.” As my grandfather tried to alight again, the propeller hit another length of fence, and “the machine was disabled and stood on its head.” Propellers proved to be his weakness. On Sept. 17, 1918, as a lieutenant with the 88th Squadron, flying reconnaissance on the Western Front, his plane was shot down — the second crash that he survived. — J. Anderson, Minneapolis, MN
An Arranged Marriage
My grandmother, Anna Fischer MacArthur, was a nurse in the American Expeditionary Forces. Her best friend and a fellow nurse, Margaret MacArthur, “chose” Anna’s husband for her while they were both serving in France. Margaret arranged for her brother, Donald MacArthur, to meet Anna’s train when she arrived home from the war. On his sister’s request, Donald traveled two days to be on the platform when Anna arrived. She recognized him immediately through the window. They were both lovers of humorous circumstances and laughter, and we used to speculate about their first exchange. They married by year’s end. — Jean Russell, St. Louis and Edward MacArthur, West Grove, PA
CHECK THESE HELPS OUT
YOU MAY FIND HELP
HERE FOR YOUR SEARCH!
Every Wednesday The Weekly Genealogist provides readers with news and information about NEHGS and the genealogical community. Features include a description of the latest database
on AmericanAncestors.org, a spotlight, an editor’s column, a survey question, stories of interest, and announcements about bookstore items, educational opportunities, and special offers.
MONTH BY MONTH
LABOR DAY kicks off many exciting holidays in September, including the unofficial start of the fall season. September includes federal holidays, religious holidays, and other celebrations and observances, such as the beginning of the school year and football season, the emergence of the harvest moon, and so much more.
September plays host to daily, weekly, and monthly celebrations; some top holidays, besides Labor Day, are Patriot Day honoring September 11, and the International Day of Peace later in the month. Some fun, quirky, or lesser-known holidays are:
International Talk Like a Pirate Day, National Cheese Pizza Day, and National Comic Book Day.
If you're looking for a reason to celebrate or be mindful, here are the holidays and observances in September 2023.
Major Holidays in September 2023
The only U.S. federal holiday in September 2023 is Labor Day on Monday, September 4. Some schools and places of business may be closed for Rosh Hashanah. This two-day Jewish New Year celebration begins on Friday, September 15, or for the holiest day of the Jewish calendar, Yom Kippur, on Sunday, September 24. On September 26 and 27, Muslims worldwide celebrate Mawlid, the birthday of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Another noteworthy date is the autumnal equinox, on September 23, when the sun is exactly above the equator and day and night are of equal length. September 15 also kicks off National Hispanic Heritage Month.
CHECK OUT THIS MONTH'S DAILY CELEBRATIONS BELOW!
WHAT DAYS ARE YOUR FAVORITES?
A 'MAMMOTH' GENEALOGY PROJECT!
Newbiggin-by-the-Sea Genealogy Project has created a family tree on family history website MyHeritage.com featuring almost 39,000 individuals with connections to the town in England that stretches back as far as the thirteenth century!
The project was started in 2012 by 'Newbiggin' man, Hilton Dawson when he inherited his mother’s family history research, and now has a team of volunteers and has had thousands of contributions.
Hilton, a former Labour Party MP, said: “It is something that came out of a public meeting when a group of us who were collecting our own family trees realized the truth of the saying that, 'everybody in Newbiggin is related to everybody else'.
“We started to create an online record of everybody who ever lived in Newbiggin-by-the-Sea.” The project has had contributions from as far afield as Canada, the USA, and Italy. Hilton said: "It has been the most incredible experience of people coming together to share their stories".
The growth of the project has necessitated a permanent family history centre on Front Street. Hilton said: “People come in and we project their history onto the wall, and they are just fascinated, overwhelmed sometimes, by how far back it goes, but how far across the GLOBE it goes as well.
“You can find out that, people that you know quite well, you went to school with, people who you live among, people who you meet every day, are actually your second, third, fourth, fifth or EVEN sixth cousin. “People are very related in Newbiggin, even now.”
Hilton said the stories they have uncovered show “we do not need to seek our inspiration very far,” and reflects how Newbiggin has changed. He said: “You can trace how it went from being a tiny fishing village to a much bigger community with the arrival of the coal mine people from all over the country. “You can see the great events of history, the world wars and the huge social change, reflected in the lives of the relatives that you are studying. “It is very engaging and powerful and humbling.”
As well as historians, Hilton hopes genetics researchers may be able to make use of their database. Creative projects such as books, exhibitions, and a musical have already been inspired by the Newbiggin family tree.
A five-day exhibition of the work to date, held last week, shows how much good the project is doing. Hilton said: “It is not only the most fantastic historical record which is available to everybody online, right across the world, I think we have got a major stimulus to tourism!
“We are working on the homecoming of the thousands of former Newbiggin people who are now distributed across the country and across the whole globe, in 2027. “It is very clear from the recent fiesta we had that it brings in people, it brings in newcomers, it brings people back to Newbiggin who formerly lived there, and it engages people in a very visceral and fundamental way.”
So, just where in the world is this Newbiggin-by-the-sea located?
Check out the map below, lower right
IN THE PAST...
THE BOOK NOOK
HISTORICAL, GENEALOGICAL & RESEARCH BOOKS
FAMILY TREE GUIDE TO DNA TESTING
AND GENETIC GENEALOGY
By Blaine T. Bettinger
Genetic Genealogy in Practice, the first workbook on genetic genealogy, the book provides family historians and genealogists who have just begun to explore genetic genealogy practical, easy to understand information that they can apply to their research. Readers learn the basic concepts of genetic genealogy. They then build on that knowledge as they study the testing, analysis, and application of Y-DNA, X-DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autosomal DNA (atDNA) to reach and support genealogical conclusions. Each chapter includes exercises with answer keys for hands-on practice.
Discover the answers to your family history mysteries using the most cutting edge tool available. This plain-English guide (newly updated and expanded to include the latest DNA developments) will teach you what DNA tests are available; the pros and cons of the major testing companies; and how to choose the right test to answer your specific genealogy questions. And once you've taken a DNA test, this guide will help you use your often-overwhelming results, with tips for understanding ethnicity estimates, navigating suggested cousin matches, and using third-party tools like GEDmatch to further analyze your data.
The book features:
· Colorful diagrams and expert definitions that explain key DNA terms and concepts such as haplogroups and DNA inheritance patterns
· Detailed guides to each of the major kinds of DNA tests and tips for selecting the DNA test that can best help you solve your family mysteries, with case studies showing how each can be useful
· Information about third-party tools you can use to more thoroughly analyze your test results once you've received them
· Test comparison guides and research forms to help you select the most appropriate DNA test and organize your results
· Insights into how adoptees and others who know little about their ancestry can benefit from DNA testing
Whether you've just heard of DNA testing or you've tested at all three major companies, this guide will give you the tools you need to unpuzzle your DNA and discover what it can tell you about your family tree.
AFRICAN AMERICAN ANCESTORS
by David T. Thackery
Although the search for African American ancestry prior to the Civil War is challenging, the difficulties are not always insurmountable. Finding Your African American Ancestors takes you through your ancestors' transition from slavery to freedom, and helps you find them using the federal census, plantation records, and other helpful sources.
The book also considers ways to locate runaway slave advertisements, to identify an ancestor's military regiment, and how to access the valuable information from The Freedman's Savings and Trust records.
THE BIBLICAL GENEALOGY
By Shannon Roddy
The Biblical Genealogy Chart, Family Tree from Adam to Jesus, Books of the Bible timeline
Simple is Better: The Bible is the most popular book in the world and yet understanding it can be a challenge. The Biblical Genealogy was designed to be elegant enough to display yet simple enough to be helpful without being overwhelming. Providing a road-map to the Bible, the Biblical Genealogy Chart elegantly displays the correlation between the books of the Bible, the genealogy from Adam to Jesus and a historical timeline dating back to 1900 Century B.C.
Putting it into Perspective
The Bible Genealogy Chart puts the Old Testament and key events in prospective. Quick Reference key Biblical events, Kings of Judah & Israel and Twelve Tribes of Israel. Legend provides insight on complex relationships, timelines and discrepancies. Ideal for Christian Leaders, new believers, and anyone seeking a better grasp of the Bible. Visually reference Biblical figures and the relevant books of the Bible during that period
Faith on Display
Not only is it filled with valuable information, the Biblical Genealogy is a work of art. Perfect for framing, this 11” x 17” document is printed on beautiful Astroparche Text Sand Paper, giving it the look of an antique map. Affordable wall décor that’s meaningful, it makes a great gift for pastors, small group leaders and Bible study devotees.
Origins of the Biblical Genealogy
From Shannon Roddy, creator of the Biblical Genealogy. "I’d always been curious about the timeline of when things occurred in the Old Testament and exactly how all the characters and events fit together, so I created this visual resource to help put it all into context. I hope you will find it as useful, enjoyable and informative in your faith journey as I have."
By Charles L. Blockson
First published in 1977, BLACK GENEALOGY remains a unique guide guide among standard genealogical references. author Charles Blockson, a noted genealogist and African American historian, traced his own family roots back through the 18th century. along his journey, he discovered obstacles and advantages that make searching for black family history a rewarding experience.
OUT INTO THE LIGHT
Spotlight: Newspaper Database:
Puskarich Public Library, Cadiz, Ohio
by Valerie Beaudrault
The Puskarich Public Library is located in the village of Cadiz, the seat of Harrison County, Ohio. The library has made a database available in its digital archive. The database includes historical newspapers and other resources. The online collection comprises more than 248,000 pages from 39 newspapers, including Harrison News Herald (1968-2020), The Steubenville Daily Gazette (1875-1920), The Cadiz Republican (1842-1968), The Freeport Press (1880-1964), The Cadiz Sentinel (1844-1911), and The Cadiz Democrat Sentinel (1854-1932). Other resources include family papers, church records, Harrison County Sheriff Jail Registers (1913), and the Harrison County Board of Commissioners Journal (1824-1898). The database is keyword searchable!
Individual newspapers can also be browsed.
PS: The official mailing for this Library will put you on a
If you want to reach it in person
it is located at the corner of
217 US-250 and N. Ohio Street in Cadiz, Ohio.
Right across from the library is the Marathon gas station on US-250.
Just so you know!
GENEALOGY IN THE NEWS
SOMETIME DURING OR JUST AFTER THE CIVIL WAR...
... a black rat in Williamsburg, Virginia, came into possession of a rare trophy: a solid silver fork. The rodent—a member of the ubiquitous species 'Rattus rattus', which arrived in North America with the Jamestown colonists—was living between the walls in a building that had variously been a home, a shop, a school, and a popular tavern. The rat’s family had likely been there for generations, gradually adding scraps of paper, fabric, crockery, bones, and miscellaneous debris to its massive nest. Pilfering the fork, however, was an unusual accomplishment for a creature that weighed about half a pound!
“This was not a little tiny dessert fork—it was a DINNER fork,” marvels Dani Jaworski, manager of architectural collections at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, which came into possession of the tavern building and all its hidden treasures in the 1960s.
That fork—which a maker’s mark dates to between 1861 and 1865—is one of countless objects that the rats of Williamsburg have pushed, dragged, or carried between their teeth to line and decorate their nests since the city became Virginia’s capital in 1699. In the years since Colonial Williamsburg was established as a living history museum in the 1930s, about 1,000 objects of interest have been recovered from historical rat nests, and Jaworski, the resident rat nest expert, has examined and sorted them into a well-ordered collection.
“Rats are actually little archivists,” Jaworski says, noting that black rats, which rarely range more than 150 feet from their nests, collect a surprising variety of items, which can serve as evidence about what and how people ate, the books and newspapers they read, how they dressed, what they did for work, and how they furnished their homes. “A rat’s nest is a snapshot of people who are long gone.”
'Rat nest' archaeology has taken off over the past 30 years, particularly in the American South, where it can be particularly valuable to the study of enslaved people, whose lives may otherwise have gone unrecorded. The 1808 Nathaniel Russell House in Charleston, South Carolina, for example, has long been admired for its neoclassical architecture—but it was also the home of rats, whose collection of buttons, bones, utensils, and scraps of paper turned up during the recent restoration of the mansion’s kitchen. At Poplar Forest, Thomas Jefferson’s retreat in western Virginia, rat nests in the walls have included game pieces, scraps of newspaper, gnawed bits of furniture, and even an entire shoe.
“The observation, collection, and analysis of rats’ nests in a domestic context provides researchers with a rare glimpse of day-to-day human life not found in typical archaeological data,” writes Travis McDonald, Poplar Forest’s director of architectural restoration, in a treatise on the value of rats as inadvertent preservationists. “It is the random, everyday collecting of site-specific contextual and commonplace items that provides such useful information to those studying history.”
SO THE NEXT TIME ANYONE ACCUSES YOU
OF BEING A
YOU CAN HONESTLY TELL THEM YOU ARE JUST A....
THE DIS-UNITED STATES
THE MAP OF THE INTERIOR, ATLANTIC, PACIFIC AND
The map title reads: "Our Country as Traitors & Tyrants Would Have It; or Map of the Disunited States.”
It was published in New York by H.H. Lloyd & Co. In blue, it shows a maximalist version of the Confederate States of America (CSA)
IT’S 1864, AND THE CIVIL WAR IS RAGING. But southern secession isn’t the only danger threatening the Union. The United States has plenty of other enemies, foreign and domestic! If they got their way, this is what the formerly united states would look like—not two, but FOUR nations jostling for space and supremacy on the land mass between the Pacific and Atlantic!
The core of the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA or CSA was composed of seven Southern, slave-holding states who seceded following the election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860: Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and South Carolina. After the Civil War began in April 1861, they were joined by four more slave states, this time from the Upper South: Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. The CSA later tried but failed to expand its authority over Missouri and Kentucky, which never formally declared their secession.
The map shows all these states but as ONE as part of the eventual CSA, with Confederate Missouri only going up to the Missouri River, which transects the state. The Confederacy ON THIS MAP also gets New Mexico, the Indian Territory (now known as Oklahoma), West Virginia (which had seceded from Virginia to remain in the Union), Maryland, and Delaware--and presumably also Washington, D.C., now stuck deep in blue (CSA) territory.
The rest of the United States is divided into three.
1. The Atlantic States (in orange) are the smallest of the four entities, and it consists of the six New England states (Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island), plus New York State, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
The border between Pennsylvania and Ohio is now an international border, with the so-called:
2. Interior States (in yellow). It emerges on the southern shore of Lake Erie and runs south to an international tripoint (CSA, Atlantic States, and Interior States) at Wheeling (a.k.a. Fort Henry)—lopping off the northern tip of West Virginia’s northern panhandle and granting it to the Interiors.
The Interior States comprise the area (formerly known as the Northwest Territory), now covered by the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin (and part of Minnesota); and also areas up to the Rocky Mountains covered by (the rest of) Minnesota, the Dakota Territory (not yet divided into the states of North and South Dakota), Nebraska, Kansas, Montana, and those parts of Idaho and Colorado Territories to the east of the Rockies. (The map shows Idaho Territory consisting of the current states of Idaho and Wyoming; (this does not seem to have any basis in historical fact). Idaho Territory comprised the current states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming up to May 26, 1864, when Montana Territory [coterminous (having the same boundaries) with the later state of Montana] was organized separately, and the part that roughly corresponds to the present state of Wyoming was transferred to 'Dakota Territory'.) SEE MAP ABOVE
The remaining U.S. states and territories are part of the
3. Pacific States (in red), i.e., California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah (entirely), and Idaho and Colorado (partly).
Which are the forces that threaten the Union? The map gives no explanation, but shows THREE figures (SEE BELOW) on the map edges, and each can be considered a danger to the United States.
The FIRST is to the east, the snake-protected bust of John C. Calhoun, Vice President under John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. The South Carolinian was a strong defender of slavery and states’ rights, and was seen as one of the precursors of Southern secession. Calhoun represents the (domestic) “Traitors” mentioned in the map’s title.
SECONDLY, a 'sinister Canadian lion', hungrily gazing towards the Great Lake states and crowned to facilitate identification, which represents the British Empire. The Brits remained neutral during the Civil War, but certain elements within both the Confederacy and Great Britain itself pleaded for British military intervention to turn the tide in favor of the South. Could this (foreign) “Tyrant” be eyeing the Interior States as a new Dominion for the British crown? Hmm.
And finally, the THIRD depiction shows us that in Mexico meanwhile, French emperor Napoleon III is crowning Maximilian of Habsburg-Lorraine emperor of Mexico. The short-lived Second Mexican Empire was France’s failed attempt to establish a subsidiary monarchy in Mexico. The United States refused to recognize the Empire, continuing its support for the Mexican republic under Benito Juarez. Perhaps if the Empire had survived, it would have tried to foster a Mexico-friendly rebellion in the Pacific states?
“To our knowledge, no other map of the Civil War era depicted such an extreme vision of a secession-torn United States,” writes Boston Rare Maps, which sold a copy of this extraordinary map
for an undisclosed sum.
But what a way to fire up the tempers and egos of the northern
US loyalists and perhaps this map served a greater purpose of banding together in unity for the fight to save the union!
CHANGING THE VIEW
‘His Name Was Bélizaire’: Rare Portrait of Enslaved Child ...Arrives at the Met
By Alexandra Eaton
Aug. 14, 2023
For many years, a 19th century painting of three white children in a Louisiana landscape held a secret. Beneath a layer of overpaint meant to look like the sky: the figure of an enslaved youth peers out at us.
Covered up for reasons that remain unspecified, the image of the young man of African descent was erased from the work around the turn of the last century, and languished for decades in dusty attics and a museum basement.
But a 2005 restoration revealed him and now the painting has a new, very prominent home at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
“I’ve been wanting to add such a work to the Met’s collection for the past 10 years,” said Betsy Kornhauser, the curator for American paintings and sculpture who handled the acquisition, “and this is the extraordinary work that has appeared.”
Kornhauser said the museum acquired the work, known as “Bélizaire and the Frey Children,” this year, as part of its larger effort to reframe how it tells the story of American art. The painting, attributed to Jacques Amans, a French portraitist of Louisiana’s elite, will hang in the American Wing this fall and again next year during the wing’s centennial celebration.
One reason “Bélizaire and the Frey Children” has drawn attention is the naturalistic depiction of Bélizaire, the young man of African descent who occupies the highest position in the painting, leaning against a tree just behind the Frey children. Although he remains separated from the white children, Amans painted him in a powerful stance, with blushing cheeks, and a kind of 'interiority' (inner character or nature) that is unusual for the time.
Since the 'Black Lives Matter' movement, the Met and other museums have responded to calls to reckon with the presentation of Black figures. When the European Galleries reopened in 2020, the museum included wall texts to highlight the presence of African people in Europe and to call attention to issues of racism, previously unmentioned. In the American Wing, which had presented “a romanticized history of American art,” Kornhauser said, a presidential portrait was recast with the consciousness of the present: John Trumbull’s 1780 portrait of George Washington and his enslaved servant, William Lee identified only the former president until 2020, when Lee’s name was then added to the title. However, unlike Bélizaire, Lee is depicted at the margins, lacking in any emotion or humanity.
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